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Farhat Zinoviev
Farhat Zinoviev

Moving History Dancing Cultures: A Dance Histor... Extra Quality



An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance,[5] although these two categories are not always completely separate; both may have special functions, whether social, ceremonial, competitive, erotic, martial, sacred or liturgical. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, gymnastics, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, and many other forms of athletics. Dance is not solely restricted to performance, though, as dance is used as a form of exercise and occasionally training for other sports and activities. Dance itself has also become a sport for some, with dancing competitions found across the world exhibiting various different styles and standards.




Moving History Dancing Cultures: A Dance Histor...


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Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, circle, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken primarily for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, or building flexibility of participants rather than to serve any benefit to onlookers. Such dance seldom has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. Even a solo dance may be undertaken solely for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers often all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men, women, and children may or must participate.


Archaeological evidence for early dance includes 10,000-year-old paintings in Madhya Pradesh, India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka,[7] and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC. It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next.[8] The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals (as observed today in many contemporary "primitive" cultures, from the Brazilian rainforest to the Kalahari Desert) is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance.[9]


References to dance can be found in very early recorded history; Greek dance (horos) is referred to by Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Lucian.[10] The Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, and contain over 30 different dance terms.[11] In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands,[12] and the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones.[13] Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu.[14][15] Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with sorcery and shamanic rituals.[16]


Rhythm and dance are deeply linked in history and practice. The American dancer Ted Shawn wrote; "The conception of rhythm which underlies all studies of the dance is something about which we could talk forever, and still not finish."[18] A musical rhythm requires two main elements; first, a regularly-repeating pulse (also called the "beat" or "tactus") that establishes the tempo and, second, a pattern of accents and rests that establishes the character of the metre or basic rhythmic pattern. The basic pulse is roughly equal in duration to a simple step or gesture.


The very act of dancing, the steps themselves, generate an "initial skeleton of rhythmic beats" that must have preceded any separate musical accompaniment, while dance itself, as much as music, requires time-keeping[22] just as utilitarian repetitive movements such as walking, hauling and digging take on, as they become refined, something of the quality of dance.[20]


Musical accompaniment, therefore, arose in the earliest dance, so that ancient Egyptians attributed the origin of the dance to the divine Athotus, who was said to have observed that music accompanying religious rituals caused participants to move rhythmically and to have brought these movements into proportional measure. The same idea, that dance arises from musical rhythm, is still found in renaissance Europe in the works of the dancing master Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro who speaks of dance as a physical movement that arises from and expresses inward, spiritual motion agreeing with the "measures and perfect concords of harmony" that fall upon the human ear,[20] while, earlier, Mechthild of Magdeburg, seizing upon dance as a symbol of the holy life foreshadowed in Jesus' saying "I have piped and ye have not danced",[23] writes;


The early-20th-century American dancer Helen Moller stated that "it is rhythm and form more than harmony and color which, from the beginning, has bound music, poetry and dancing together in a union that is indissoluble."[31]


The dances of the Middle East are usually the traditional forms of circle dancing which are modernized to an extent. They would include dabke, tamzara, Assyrian folk dance, Kurdish dance, Armenian dance and Turkish dance, among others.[47][48] All these forms of dances would usually involve participants engaging each other by holding hands or arms (depending on the style of the dance). They would make rhythmic moves with their legs and shoulders as they curve around the dance floor. The head of the dance would generally hold a cane or handkerchief.[47][49]


Dance has played an important role in forging a collective identity among the many cultural and ethnic groups of Latin America.[54] Dance served to unite the many African, European, and indigenous peoples of the region.[52] Certain dance genres, such as capoeira, and body movements, especially the characteristic quebradas or pelvis swings, have been variously banned and celebrated throughout Latin American history.[54]


Choreographers are the ones that design the dancing movements within a dance, they are often university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company.[58][59]


Dance has become a fundamental aspect of the popular app and a primary category influencing the youth's culture today. Dance challenges have become a popular form of content across many social media platforms including TikTok. During 2020, TikTok dances offered an escape for isolated individuals to play and connect with one another through virtual format.[68] With TikTok's easy accessibility to a variety of different filters and special effects, the app made filming yourself dancing to music a fun and easy past time. Since its debut back in 2017, the app attracted a small but growing audience of professional dancers in their early 20s to 30s. While the majority of this demographic is more accustomed to performing onstage, this app introduced a new era of dancing onscreen.[69]


The dance has always been with us, even before the arrival of written language and modern history when our earliest cultures evolved utilizing oral and performance methods to pass the stories from one generation to the next. Many historians believe that social, celebratory, and ritual dances are essential factors in the development of early human civilizations.


After the arrival of the European Renaissance, the history of music and dance exploded with new additions to song and dance. Ease of travel and immigration to the new world brought these dances into the mix with many native cultures of the New World, forging countless new dance types that are still popular today.


Clogging, flatfoot dancing, and square dancing are three of the more popular dancing styles in Appalachian history. Clogging strictly follows the syncopated rhythms of the music, while flatfoot dancing allows the dancer a bit more freedom of expression.


HISTORYPrehistoric Period : The Egyptians were the first great culture to infuse its society withthe magic of dance , which evolved from the most simple rituals used by hunters to find theirprey.Greek Period : Greek dance evolved from basic dramatic form which incorporated dance,music, spoken words, and costumes. Participation in dance and drama festival was areligious exercise not merely an amusement. There were more than 200 Greek dancesdesigned for every mood and purpose.Roman Period : Rome imported entertainers from Greece to perform theatrical pieces inhonor of the gods and to amuse a population weary from a plague. Romans were influencedby Grecian models, putting the most emphasis on the spectacle and mime to the extent thatdancing itself almost disappeared.Medieval Period : Originally dance movements were part of dramatic rituals , the best-known of which is the Latin Mass. By the middle ages these works moved from inside thechurches to the out-of-doors. Another important rite of the Middle Ages was known as thedance of death.Renaissance Period : This Period saw the birth of the theatre in dance in the courts ofItalian City states , where such dance was used as a political machinery to show splendor,wealth and power.Classic Period : During the middle 17th century , ballet became a spectacle in every court.Public ballet performances involved more than just dancing because they were a mixtureof poetry, music, dialogue, and elaborate dance. Such ballet performance was known asballets a entrees.Modern Period : During the 20th century , jazz and tap dance became popular as classicballet continued to flourish. Social dances such as the fox trot, two-step, Boston,Charleston, Castle walk, Castle polka, tango, conga, and rumba. 041b061a72


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