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Farhat Zinoviev
Farhat Zinoviev

5G ? The Future Of Security And Privacy In Smart Cities

Artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of machine learning and deep learning has significantly improved internet and security protection. AI has potential for 5G telecom carriers too. It will allow them to optimize their investment and reduce costs by driving accurate 5G network planning, producing capacity expansion forecasts, accessing coverage auto-optimization, enabling dynamic cloud network resource scheduling, and delivering 5G smart network slicing. Over the coming years, AI will help carriers transform from the current management model based on human capabilities to a self-driven automatic management model. With this evolution they will truly achieve smart transition in network operation and maintenance.

5G – The Future of Security and Privacy in Smart Cities

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As the use of positioning technologies has become more widespread, mobile applications using Location-Based Services (LBSs) have contributed more and more to mobile big data. This has raised important privacy security issues. Users usually need to submit some personal information to the trusted LBS server to obtain the service data, and traditional procedures assume that this information is discarded immediately after use. However, the data may be cached and reused in the future, exposing it to increased threats. Privacy requirements need to be elevated, and breaches prevented by stopping certain queries from being sent directly to the server.

Moreover, 5G networks have different actors such as Virtual Mobile Network Operators (VMNO), Communication Service Providers (CSPs) and network infrastructure providers. All of these entities have different priorities for security and privacy. Synchronizing these disparate privacy policies will be one of the chief challenges of 5G privacy.

The integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing is becoming a key driver of digital transformation in the healthcare industry. The emergence of cloud-assisted e-healthcare systems enables patients to supply their personal health information (PHI) to high quality and efficient medical services. While this paradigm shift has brought new opportunities and many benefits to healthcare organizations, it has also raised a number of security and privacy issues.

Particularly in smart factories, Internet of Things (IoT), Industrial IoT (IIoT), and Cyber-Physical Systems currently lack adequate access control and anti-malware and operate 24/7. They are vulnerable to attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Regarding a virtualization environment for an internet operator, Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), along with Software-Defined Networking (SDN), also encounter attacks and the solution to this is still unclear. In smart buildings, new usable factors of authentication and types of biometric methods are needed to speed up the authentication process. In smart health, data confidentiality is vital for privacy law compliance such as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the EU and personal data protection acts in many countries. Cryptography and new security architecture for specific contexts can support privacy and law compliance. Technologies for data integrity, such as blockchain, maintain the accuracy and consistency of data, but the actual implementation (e.g., e-voting in a smart government) cannot confirm data availability and confidentiality due to lack of secure design on the front end and other non-blockchain-related parts. Consequently, security with privacy is an essential topic to ICT audiences with an emphasis on smart cities.

Cyberattacks on smart cities became epidemic-scale across the globe. US firm ABI Research predicts there will be around 1.3 billion connections in smart cities in 2024. The Indian government established a smart city project in 2015, under which the ministry of urban development has created 100 sustainable and citizenfriendly smart cities across the nation. Smart city development has a great potential to help citizens, governance, businesses, and local services, but its success depends on 3 primary issues (i)Infrastructure (ii) Security and (iii) Privacy. The infrastructure of a smart city involves various data from crime rates to rush hour stats to air pollution. Distribution and connection of sensors throughout the city and powering the smart nodes are still relevant problem statements. Scientists and engineers have made great measures to protect smart cities from cyber threats, but as computer science develops, the security of the smart city could be undermined at any time. Even the billion-dollar government and IT firms of first-world nations are unable to offer security measures to stop cyber threats on advanced cities like Atlanta, Baltimore, the island of Sint Maarten, etc.Widespread internet attacks targeted all of these smart cities, disrupting essential governmental functions and costing these communities millions of dollars. Apart from security, privacy is also a major concern for the citizens of smart city. The installation of cameras on every street corner may reduce the crime rate, but it can cause serious privacy issues for law-abiding residents. The volume of data being gathered from all the smart sensors that locals interact with daily is another legitimate worry. The proposed symposium will discuss infrastructure, security and privacy issues of smart city. Symposium will consist of keynote lectures and panel discussions. invited lecture and panel discussion. There will be no parallel sessions. 3 Keynote lecturers (45 minutes including questions).

Narang Kishor is a technology advisor, mentor, and design architect in electrical, electronics, and ICT with over 40 years of professional experience in education, research, design, and advisory. He has over 30 years of hardcore research, design, and development experience in fields as diverse as industrial engineering, power and energy engineering, IT, telecommunications, medical devices, and environmental engineering. Professionally, he is an electronics design engineer practicing design and development across a wide spectrum of products, systems, and solutions through his own independent design house, NARNIX, since 1981. For the last 10 years, he has been deeply involved in standardization in the electrical, electronics, communications, information technology and cyber security domains with a focus on identifying gaps in standards to bring harmonization through standardized interfaces to ensure end-to-end Interoperability. He has been leading national standardization initiatives at BIS, the Indian national standards development organization (SDO), in smart cities, smart manufacturing, smart energy, and active assisted living as the founding Chairman of the Smart Infrastructure Sectional Committee LITD 28, along with contributing to multiple other SDOs and initiatives. Globally, he is Vice Chair-Strategy and Project Leader of two international standards in IEC SyC Smart Cities, Convenor of Communication Technologies Work Group in IEC SyC Communication Technologies & Architectures, CoEditor in ISO/IEC JTC1/WG11 Four Standards, and Chair of Advancing Research Work Group & member Steering Committee of OCEANIS, beyond proactive contributions in many committees in global SDOs.

Narendra also co-chairs several IEEE initiatives such as the Future Networks INGR, Applications and Services WG, P1950.1 Smart Cities Architecture standards development, Public Safety Technology Initiative, and the Telehealth and Transdisciplinary Framework Industry Connections. His current interests include comprehensive transdisciplinary frameworks, 5G and future networks, digital transformation, smart communities, and related ecosystems.

Smart cities have a unique characteristic: integration of deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) services and innovations to handle complex data in storage devices and during citywide transmission. Technologies adopted in smart cities mostly are state of the art and may not be found outside smart cities. Moreover, smart cities today have been used as testbeds or showcases for new technologies for which security and privacy are still uncertain. Consequently, valuable data supported by those technologies can be at risk from various attacks. Security with privacy is an essential key to driving a smart city. Security and privacy issues affect not only a smart city as a whole but also its smart elements including buildings, factories, health, education, and transportation.

Particularly in the smart industry, Internet of Things (IoT), industrial IoT (IIoT), and cyber-physical systems currently lack adequate access control and antimalware and operate 24/7. They are vulnerable to attacks such as DDoS. Regarding personal data protection in a smart context, data confidentiality is vital for privacy law compliance, such as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the EU and personal data protection acts in many other countries. Cryptography, access control models, and new security architectures for specific contexts can support privacy and law compliance. Consequently, security with privacy is an essential topic for ICT audiences with an emphasis on smart cities.

This special issue aimed to collate original research and review articles emphasizing security and privacy in smart cities. After peer review, we selected seven papers, including six research articles and one review article, which all highlight current issues and trends in the related topics.

As mentioned above, IoT plays a critical role in smart cities; thus, new requirements and risks in IoT security are never ending and can always be discovered. D. Yamakawa et al. investigated the risk associated with using a public certificate authority (CA) in long-lifespan IoT devices. The study addresses the possibility that IoT devices can be disconnected from the network for a very long time, leading to the problem of certificate expiration. The paper proposes a mechanism using certificates issued and signed by a private CA in conjunction with an embedded key used for verifying firmware updates.

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